Lightining Rod

In addition to the thunders that we hear a lot on stormy days, the lightning that accompanies them are extremely dangerous natural events. What is the lightning rod we use to protect against lightning that causes fire and death, how it works, how it was discovered for the first time, let’s examine it in a little more detail.
Unfortunately, we have often experienced in recent years in disasters in our country how dangerous natural events such as earthquakes, floods and avalanches can be. However, one of them is often overlooked; lightning. A lightning strike can be the beginning of many great disasters, especially fires, and even the end can be death when it falls directly on a living thing.

Our biggest weapon against lightning strikes is lightning rod. The lightning rod system has been used by people for hundreds of years as a precaution against lightning strikes.

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Using lightning rods is a real life saver, especially in cities and high-rise buildings where the electricity load is intense. Let’s take a closer look at questions like what is a lightning rod, how does it work, how was it discovered for the first time. What is a lightning rod?
Lightning rod is one of the most effective parts of a precautionary system called lightning protection system, which has been used for hundreds of years all over the world. In other words, contrary to what is known, the name of this system is not lightning rod. The lightning rod is only part of this complex system. However, it is possible to say that it is the most important part.

Lightning protection system; It consists of lightning rod, conductor, grounding and surge arrester, which is the catch part. The part that catches the lightning as soon as it hits is the lightning rod. Although it has different uses throughout history, basically most of this system is made of metal material. Thus, the electrically charged lightning is transmitted to the ground without damaging anything. First of all, the building where a lightning rod is to be installed is examined by experts. Studies are carried out on how often lightning will strike, what diameter it will have, how much energy it can come with. According to the results of this study, the most suitable lightning rod type is selected. Visit

After selecting the appropriate lightning protection system, first the metal lightning rod is placed at the highest point of the building, that is, the closest point to the lightning. A downward conductor system is laid so that the lightning rod that catches the lightning transmits the energy. A grounding system is installed to ensure that the energy sent by the conductor is mixed with the ground, and a surge suppressor system is installed to prevent the energy absorbed by the soil from being dissipated.

The working principle of the lightning protection system is simple; the attraction of energy and temperature-laden lightning by the metal system and the transfer of the drawn power to the ground, which is the most harmless target. We can see it as a version of the grounding system used in homes that can withstand much greater energies.



If it goes on like this, we will find life on the Europa moon before Mars: The Hubble telescope has found geysers spraying water into space on Jupiter’s moon Europa, and it is almost certain that the moon has an underground ocean. Thus, there was no need for NASA to send submarines; because we can take a water sample from the geyser. Travel to Florence

As I explained in my articles on the thief satellite Charon, which stole Pluto’s atmosphere, and Enceladus, which sprayed water into space, there is a hidden line in the Solar System that separates life from death. We call it the snow line, and it works just like the snow line on Earth. It separates the hot planets close to the Sun from the pale and dead worlds. canalisationengorgee

As the Solar System formed, the water molecules in the gas disk that would give birth to the planets evaporated rapidly because of the young star’s heat. Only the Earth and Mars were able to retain water on their surface despite the heat, thanks to their massive mass.

Mercury was always a bare, dead piece of rock that was baked like ceramic. Venus, on the other hand, overheated over time, turning into a super hot pressure cooker world and lost all the water it had. In the distance, however, the opposite happened, and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn became ice cold.
As we move far enough from the Sun and beyond the Asteroid Belt, we see that the celestial bodies cool rapidly. This allows the moons of Jupiter and Saturn to draw large amounts of water vapor onto them.

Since there is no air in space, water molecules exist in vapor form in the absence of pressure. However, when it collects on the surface of moons such as Europa and Enceladus, it is gravitationally condensed. Of course, it is impossible to have liquid water on satellites with a surface temperature of -220 degrees Celsius; but these moons are covered by a layer of ice 10, 30, even 100 km thick and lightinings are too many.
Under its own weight, the thick layers of ice that covers many moons of Jupiter and Saturn are being warmed by being crushed under their own weight. In the case of Europa, if we add to this the tidal effect of the gravity of Jupiter and its other moons, something very interesting emerges: red bet tips
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The tidal effect is stretching and shrinking Europa’s rocky mantle, heating it up. Thus, more of the overlying ice melts, forming a global subterranean ocean. Because this ocean is protected from the cold of space under a thick layer of ice, it does not freeze again.
Europa and life in space

As I will explain in the third part of our Why There Is Life article series, salt water oceans were necessary for life to emerge on Earth; because for the emergence of bacteria that have their own organic membranes and evolve by swimming freely in water, it is necessary to generate additional bioenergy by pumping sodium across the cell membrane.

Imagine an ocean forming beneath a layer of ice that covers a rocky moon like Europa, which is rich in minerals. What will happen to this water? Of course, the rocky mantle will partially melt and salty minerals will mix with the water. This will create a saltwater environment that allows the sodium pump to power life.
So far, we have written a good scenario and explained why there can be life on Jupiter’s moon Europa. However, before we start imagining life forms in outer space, it is necessary to look at whether Europa really has an underground ocean.

Although new theories predict a subterranean ocean, some physicists said that Europa was covered only by thick glaciers.
So what’s new about last night’s announcement? The Hubble telescope had also seen Europa geysers two years ago, with sharp eyes that allow it to see even the faintest galaxies billions of light-years away in the Universe.
However, it was possible that the geysers were caused by hot springs in chambers that partially melted under the ice. In short, seeing a geyser once on the Europa moon did not mean that the moon was covered by the global underground ocean.

After all, if the ice was floating on the water, the tidal waves must have dislodged the heavy ice. We’ve even made computer models that demonstrate this; but we haven’t seen enough geysers to prove them.


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